Technology of the Earth

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Abram’s ‘eisegesis’ of Ponty’s meditation on the phenomenology of language produced by the ‘text’ of the world reminds me of David Hume’s philosophical meditations on impressions and causality. Both focus on perception and the ways external stimuli influence internal modalities of thought. What’s more intriguing is the “flesh” Abram’s gives earth. He’s diction is very religious and it appears to be focusing on the world as a huge organism that we obtain all perception from. And from a techno-critical lens, the world and human beings become interlinked to form one gestalt being. I think his work sounds like this because of the relationships he is drawing from the spirituality of indigenous people. Abram’s writes, “The diversity of my sensory systems, and their spontaneous convergence in the things that I encounter, ensures this interpenetration or interweaving between my body and other bodies – this magical participation that permits me, at times, to feel what others feel.” Not only does this quote represent the interlinking with the universe, but also the potential of language and it’s affects on all senses, not only the eyes that read the words or symbols on the page. But the answer to this phenomenon in my opinion is simple, in a sense. The reason why language has such an affect is because language is an expression of thought and thought elicits the senses by sending different information from our minds. So, of course language will spark thought to then spark taste, or feelings, etc. Nonetheless, this piece was very interesting and the line of thought worth exploring.

Mumford and Personal Technic…

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            I find Mumford’s assertions extremely contradictory. For instance, Mumford writes, “Though it was by his symbols, not his tools, that man’s departure from a purely animal state was assured…” This statement puts a lot of weight on symbols and not the tools humans are known to have developed that set them apart from animals, and more importantly, the early humans’ use of fire. Mumford claims it’s symbols that separate early humans from animals, but without the fire the early humans wouldn’t have survived. Also, if we look at symbols closely, they are a form of technology, a tool for deeper understanding. The two should be looked at equivocally, not in separate categories. This oversight intrigues me the most because it also speaks about how the concept of what constitutes a technology has changed. I wonder how Mumford and his contemporaries defined technology in the 60s.This cuts the artery of his argument and negates “the misleading notion that man is primarily a tool-making animal, who owes his inordinate mental development to his long apprenticeship in making tools.”    

 My Personal Technic

The technics that I use are very similar to Robinson Crusoe’s, but at the same time distinct. Instead of a journal, I write poetry and fiction. But when I write fiction I focus on teaching the reader or conveying a message about existential experiences or critiquing society. On the other hand, when I write poetry, it comes from the emotions I am feeling at the time. In other words, I write poetry only when I am in the mood to. Poetry helps me get my feelings out and releases them from my unconscious. My fiction comes from the more rational side of my being and I put serious thought into it, and worry about mechanics and tone, as opposed to the poetry, where it’s just an oppotunity to release myself from any creative restraints.

Promethian Consiouness

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“There were some to whom he gave strength without swiftness,

while he equipped the weaker with swiftness; some he armed, and others he left unarmed;

and devised for the latter some other means of preservation, making some large, and

having their size as a protection, and others small, whose nature was to fly in the air or

burrow in the ground; this was to be their way of escape. Thus did he compensate them

with the view of preventing any race from becoming extinct. And when he had provided

against their destruction by one another, he contrived also a means of protecting them

against the seasons of heaven; clothing them with close hair and thick skins sufficient to

defend them against the winter cold and able to resist the summer heat, so that they might

have a natural bed of their own when they wanted to rest; also he furnished them with

hoofs and hair and hard and callous skins under their feet” – Story of Epimetheus

This passage echoes an early technological consciousness, where creation involves equipping certain beings with enhancements. These enhancements differ from creature to creature. The most intriguing aspect about this passage is the variety of technologies echoed; for example, the hair and skin on animals, which we now use to make coats and other clothing, and the way a “means of protecting them against the seasons of heaven” was provided to the creatures, something humans do now with their constructions of homes, and development of umbrellas; the ability to fly is echoed, which we see in our development of different aircrafts. What all these enhancements boil down to is an ability to have an advantage over other creatures so that survival may continue. The enhancements echoed in the passage, like the advancements in our technology, are to improve life and avoid extinction.

Technology is everywhere!

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From the excerpts of Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars, found in William Cooper’s Behold a Pale Horse

Descriptive Introduction of the Silent Weapon

              Everything that is expected from an ordinary weapon is expected from a silent weapon by its creators, but only in its own manner of junctioning.

              It shoots situations, instead of bullets; propelled by data processing, instead of a chemical reaction (explosion); originationg from bits of data, instead of grains of gunpowder; from a computer, instead of a gun; operated by a computer programmer, instead of a marksman; under the orders of a banking magnate, instead of a military general.

              It makes no obvious explosive noises, causes no obvious physical or mental injuries, and does not obviously interfere with anyone’s daily social life.

              Yet it makes an unmistakeable “noise,” causes unmistakable physical and mental damage, and unmistakably interferes with daily social life, i.e., unmistakable to a trained observer, one who knows what to look for.

               The public cannot comprehend this weapon, and therefore cannot believe that they are being attacked and subdued by a weapon.

               The public might instinctively feel that something is wrong, but because of the technical nature of the silent weapon, they cannot express their feeling in a rational way, or handle the problem with intelligence. Therefore, they do not know how to cry for help, and do not know how to associate with others to defend themselves against it.

                When a  silent weapon is applied gradually, the public adjusts/adapts to its presence and learns to tolerate its encroachment on their lives until the pressure (psychological via economic) becomes too great and they crack up.

                Therefore, the silent weapon is a type of a biological warfare. It attacks the vitality, options, and mobility of the individuals of a society by knowing, understanding, manipulating, and attacking their sources of natural and social energy, and their physical, mental, and emotional strengths and weaknesses. (40-41, Behold a Pale Horse)

What type of technology is discussed in the above passage? The passage is found from a book published in 1991. Can we think of any situations that have emerged in the 21st century that can be related to what’s described in the passage?

For example, the crash on Wall Street, where data and information, all parts of electronic data, caused a real physical and psychological experience. We could look at our whole economical system. We have debit cards and credit cards, all data, and no physical substance to back what we claim we have. Ever thought of what would happen if someone decided to shut that server or database down? What will happen to our money in the bank? Other than a physical receipt, what can prove that we had money there to begin with? 

How about facebook? Can it be a silent weapon? Facebook is already known for selling information to other companies, and these companies then bombard the user with advertisements that are specific to our trends. We are subtly being marketed to through the computer, based on our spending habits. 

What about media? The quietest but deadliest weapon. Who’s news are we actually receiving, in other words, which side of the story? We weren’t there, but we are expected to trust the news source but how reliable are those sources? Who’s interest do the big news corporations have in mind? Is it the financiers that help the network remain functioning, or the public? Is it the political party who shares the same views as the producer of the network, or the candidate? Are the popular trends in the world popular because we deem them so or are they only popular because there the ones allowed exposure?

                   In the long run, as seen in The Tempest, knowledge becomes a silent weapon, influencing us to bend and react as programmed by those in control, like Prospero used his knowledge to conform everyone to his will. My last question is, who’s will are we being conformed to in our present situations? Wait, one more, what other silent weapons can you think of?


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Hopper’s painting, Nighthawks, evokes a sense of tranquility. This mood is created by the few patrons seen in the restaurant, and the immense light radiating throughout the image. In fact, the venue seems to be the only place opened, and its light illuminates the sidewalk. Thus, the painting creates a clean and purified portrait of city life.

            Experience in an urban city like Manhattan will inspire me, if I were a painter, to create such a painting, because the ‘true’ image of Manhattan is crowded, and far from clean. The painter in this image may have been experiencing the chaos brought by technologies like electricity, which would have caused for later shop hours, over populated streets, and pollution. Hence, in order to escape the realities of progression that we would rather ignore, Hopper creates an image that represents an escape from urban chaos, while still maintaining urban appearance. Instead of giving us an image of the suburbs, and painting a traditional pastoral scene, Hopper creates an image that provides the illusion of cleanliness, order, and progress in the new city landscapes coming to being.

The Great Gatsby

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Looking at Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby through a techno-critical lens can be quite the challenge. On the surface, there are some obvious aspects of technology. These are the automobile, and the telephone. The latter being a less blatant element of technology in the novel than the former. But before I examine the obvious ones, I would like to focus on a technology we are introduced to in the opening pages – it can also be found in The Jungle – of the novel, that is, banking.

Nick reveals that he, “bought a dozen volumes on banking and credit and investment securities and they stood on my [his] shelf in red and gold like new money from the mint, promising to unfold the shining secrets that only Midas and Morgan and Maecenas knew” (8). This reference to the banking technologies of old, and if compared to the current changes in banking, makes me think about the evolution of that technology. Early aspects of banking were physical. The banks accounted for the cash you deposited in reality. Banking now days is arbitrary. By that I mean, we are given debit cards and our funds are kept on a digital system, in a sense. This goes for investment banking, as well. The evolution of this particular technology has changed the rules of the ‘banking game’, and given bank owners opportunities to make new profits with the digital cash, or shall we say, credit, without any physical cash leaving the banks. Investors can channel the money of numerous accounts, and cycle them through various investments, almost instantaneously. Maybe, this is why the bankers found it so easy to gamble with our cash, to then stick their hands out for a bailout, which just wreaks more havoc on an already flawed system. Leaving behind politics, though, let me bring our attention to the automobile and telephone technology in the novel.

“He saw me looking with admiration at his car,” (68) Nick observes. Like today, a car doesn’t only get you from one place to another, but it stands as your reputation to some people. The car was a symbol of power, prestige, and class-status, of course, depending on the vehicle you owned. It’s like when we see a Jaguar and a Mercedes, we’re automatically thinking wealth, as oppose to seeing a Honda or a Toyota driving pass us.

And of course there is the telephone, which allowed for information to travel instantly, well almost instantaneous. It was the phone that allowed Gatsby to conduct business miles away from the areas that he was supervising or controlling. Nick states, “Almost at the moment when Mr. Gatsby identified himself a butler hurried toward him with the information that Chicago was calling him on the wire” (53). The novel suggests that he was a bootlegger, but one can’t be certain. Regardless, he was conducting some type of business from a long distance and this was made possible through the telephone. The telephone was more efficient than a letter, in time of delivery, and privacy, but of course that has changed with wire-tapping capabilities. Moreover, even telecommunication technology evolved, the cell-phone is a testimony to that. I could only imagine on what’s going to replace the cell-phone…

The grind in The Jungle

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            While reading Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, I couldn’t help but see the use of humans as a new technology. This human-machine was created by the immigrant population and everyone that worked in the meat-packing industry. This machine bled into political systems and economical systems, as well, which, apparently, go hand-in-hand in America. It’s very difficult to look at any political system without being confronted by the economical systems that lie hidden in the background. These systems influence lifestyles on grand scales and directly affect quality of life, of course, depending on which class you fall into. Hence, the reason why many believe the American government is not a democracy at all, but some form of capitalistic body. With this idea in mind, there’s a clear movement from thinking mechanically to create machines that will improve production to thinking mechanically so that larger societal systems can function properly and smoothly. The most obvious system present in the novel, which is the umbrella / larger system, is capitalism. Even in the novel, we see the corruption in government and its gluttony for profit when reading how the meat inspectors, and other government officials, were given money under the table to shut up or to act in favor of private interest.

Some smaller systems can be seen when looking at the unions, law enforcement/judicial, immigrant workers, and consumers. That gives us about 4 subsystems and 1 large system, but I am sure if we search deeper we could find many more systems in the novel. These systems are all interlinked with the hope of keeping the populace running like a clock, with each part of this big machine of civilization responsible for its own task. I bring up the clock because it is the perfect example of a conceptual framework for ideological systems, such as society – or shall I say democracy. Ideally, the clock reflects a machine that’s dependent on each of its parts, and there is a clock maker responsible for keeping it functional. In regards to political systems, the question is: Who or what represents the clock maker?  

            Moreover, in an economical system like the one presented in the novel, each person of society needs to be an expert at a specific trade. From the opening of the novel, the narrator describes characters by their occupations and their potential functions in the societal ‘clock.’ For example, when the narrator describes Jurgis, he states, “Jurgis could take up a two-hundred-and-fifty-pound quarter of beef and carry it into a car without a stagger, or even a thought” (6). When describing Marija, he states, “She works in a canning factory, and all day long she handles cans of beef that weigh fourteen pounds” (11); and when talking about Mikolas, “He is a beef-boner…” (14). But these occupations/potentials don’t last because the work-force in Durham can’t maintain their efficiencies due to their humanity. The machine is known for chewing you up and spitting you out when you can’t work efficiently, whether it’s because of age, or infirmities caused by the job itself. The characters in the novel are being treated like animals. The narrator writes, “It was all so very businesslike that one watched it fascinated. It was pork-making by machinery, pork-making by applied mathematics. And yet somehow the most matter-of-fact person could not help thinking of the hogs; they were so innocent, they came so very trustingly…” (36). After reading this, I couldn’t distinguish between the workers in the stockyards and the animals being slaughtered, who trusted their bosses so much, and were used for whatever they were worth, up to the last cent. What’s more telling is that “all that a mere man could do, it seemed to Jurgis, was to take a thing like this as he found it, and do as he was told; to be given a place in it and a share in its wonderful activities was a blessing to be grateful for…” (42) Hence, the system creates a need (money=survival) and a means to supply it (cheap labor) so there’s no escaping the abuse. “There was no place in it where a man counted for anything against a dollar” (59). In a way, I feel the abuse of the workers in the novel is worse than slavery because it’s masked behind a typical work ethos. The meat-packers work like anyone else, except they get paid chump-change. In the end, they’re “simply the worn-out parts of the great merciless packing-machine” (121).

Sad, and wonderful Dr. Frankenstein

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“This is the time I have called the Age of Wonder, and with any luck we have not yet quite grown out of it” – Richard Holmes, in The Age of Wonder.

            Victor Frankenstein embodies the idea of a scientist consumed by a passion of ‘wonder.’ He takes the ideas of the mechanical arts a step further, and creates an autonomous life. What this being he has created actually is can be debated. Nonetheless, Victor can be seen as the first eugenicist of the literature read in the class thus far. We have read about mechanical artist, such as Robinson Crusoe, and liberal artist, such as Prospero, but never were we introduced to a technological artist who can create a new life. This feat of Victor is quite telling of the social consciousness, ideological development, and wonder of the period. It speaks multitudes of a society continuing the journey of redeeming itself from the Fall to pre-Fall Adamic nature, mimicking God’s ability to create life, maybe, with the hope to extend one’s life, and extending its mastery of the natural laws. As we read, Victor did have a desire for the “…search of the philosopher’s stone and the elixir of life” (22). Victor also says, “… what glory would attend the discovery, if I could banish disease from the human frame, and render man invulnerable to any but a violent death” (22). Hence, there is definitely a wonder of the nature of existence, and the hope to cure diseases and evade death.

Moreover, his fancies also bring up the possible questions that may have been circulating at the time about the soul, questions that have been examined by the ancients. If Victor created a living being, what is its life-force (soul)? What animates the creature? And how can it help him in his fantastical quest of immortality? What new information would such a creation provide? In the end, his creation seems to reveal more about the human condition than provide answers for eternal life. The quote below seems to summarize what his studies of natural science provided him, that is, a fiery desire to ‘wonder.’

            “Natural philosophy is the genius that has regulated my fate…” – Victor Frankenstein

            Victor’s remarks, while narrating his tale to Mr. Walton, are also quite telling, and his beliefs of the two arts are revealed. He states, “If, instead of this remark, my father had taken the pains to explain to me, that the principles of Agrippa had been entirely exploded, and that a modern system of science had been introduced, which possessed much greater powers than the ancient, because the powers of the latter were chimerical, while those of the former were real and practical; under such circumstances, I should certainly have thrown Agrippa aside, and, with my imagination warmed as it was, should probably have applied myself to the more rational theory of chemistry which has resulted from modern discoveries” (21). But he still desired for the unexplainable, the things that science cannot account for. Victor says, “The natural phaenomena that take place every day before our eyes did not escape my examinations” (22) and, when told that his ideas of natural philosophy were outdated, “I was required to exchange chimeras of boundless grandeur for realities of little worth” (27). But there was one science that combined his ideology with the new, Chemistry. Chemistry, for Victor, seems to combine his passion of the unexplainable with the mechanical, with the hope of manipulating the unexplainable through practical measures, because some of the things believed unexplainable (lightening, earthquakes) were already being decoded in understandable, hard scientific, evidence-based ways. As Professor Waldman tells him, “[Chemist] They have acquired new and almost unlimited powers; they can command the thunders of heaven, mimic the earthquake, and even mock the invisible world with its own shadows” (28). Hence, Chemistry was a branch of natural philosophy that combined the fanciful with mechanical manipulation. It inspired awe, yet, still made itself appear to be measurable and replicable. It was a bridge that might help him to achieve his goals of immortality.

On an end note, this train of thought Victor treaded resembles the philosophies of modern medicine, making Victor out to be some sort of fanciful physician, exploring different scientific innovations of the time. Kind of like the way chemist in drug companies develop different drugs based on natural occurring chemicals, mixing them up, and then patenting them, then selling it to the American public. I am sure that the powers that be are searching for an eternal life pill, but until they find it we will still be left in a state of ‘wonder’!

A Clock is Worth a Thousand Words

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I couldn’t help, but to pick both of these images. (And no, I have not written a thousand words)

Let’s look at the one with the ram, or goats, on its sides first.  Artistically, there is a lot of attention placed on the two goats and the direction in which they’re facing.  Another thing to note is the image of the male and female underneath the face of the clock. If we look closer, the male and the female are in the middle of a pastoral scene. There’s grass all around them and there’s a blue-grey sky behind them. These aesthetic choices can suggest many things about the society the clock is a product of.

For instance, it could suggest a society that has dominated nature to such a degree that it is able to replicate the images of animal to the finest detail, and remove the natural onto the unnatural, the top corners of the clock (as we could see by the horns on the goats and their position on the frame). The humans figured in the middle, below the clock, symbolize the human dominance of nature and the idea that they’re the center of time. It’s as if time is revolving around them, designed by them, and not outside of them. This can also be seen as an attempt of possessing god-like craftsmanship and consciousness. The picture also depicts a progression from the liberal arts to mechanical arts. This connection can be made based on the floral images on the face of the clock.

The second clock is golden, and has angelic creatures standing on its sides. There is also a branch, or twig with leaves, on the top of it, symbolizing nature. This clock is paradoxical, because there is a consciousness of two worlds, the natural and supernatural.

The second picture seems to suggest even more than the first. It’s as if the attainment of a celestial consciousness through craftsmanship is legitimized through the care for detail emphasized by the creater of the clock, who, in this particular creation, is human. The twig at the top symbolically conveys it – the twig being an evidence of nature – suggesting that the power to create is inate in humans and stems from our divine likeness to God. Also, the angelic beings on the clock clearly portray the clock as some sort of example of divine creation. It’s as if the craftsman of the clock attempted to harness the infinite qualities of time through the invention of a solid object to measure it, in an attempt to contain time.

Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe

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Just as “Moloch” London depended upon a fresh influx of bodies to grow faster than its death rate, England depended upon its colonized bodies to feed its “necessary” needs that resulted from its expansion. Defoe, ostensibly the professional booster of such a vigorous economy of expansion, points repeatedly to its cost, its dependence on slavery, upon violence, upon death.

Crusoe does his part to stock the island with “Supplies” including “seven Women, being such as I found proper for Service, or for Wives to such as would take them: as to the English Men, I promis’d them to send them some women from England, with a good Cargoe of Necessaries (220).

Slavery—physical and sexual-becomes “Necessary” here, sustaining not just life, but Crusoe’s jaunts around the world. While Defoe repeatedly presents the rigors of the slavery system . . . he remains oddly outside of his own analysis of the system. Peter Earle ruefully notes that Defoe “went so far as to hope that one day all Englishmen might be masters, wishing for his country’s good ‘that it might please God that all our people were masters and able to keep servants, tho’ they were obliged to buy their servants, as other nations do.’”

            –Carol Houlihan Flynn, “Consumptive Fictions: Cannibalism and Defoe,” p. 424 and pp. 430-1.

Carol Houlihan Flynn’s essay (quoted above) is interpreting Robinson Crusoe through a postcolonial lens.  As soon as Crusoe stepped foot on the island, he begins an imperial expansion. He identified the ‘other’ and proved his right as ruler through moralizing rhetoric, based on his disgust of the savages’ custom of consuming the flesh of man. Also, he began his own civilization from the ground up. He collected what he deemed useful, began working on a house, and started farming to provide for his own sustenance. What’s even more fascinating is the way he naturally and systematically acquires knowledge of the mechanical arts in order to survive on the island. Looking at the work through a postcolonial lens can also help tease out the anti-Enlightenment critiques at work in the novel. Rasmussen writes, in “Contempary Political Theory as an Anti-Enlightenment project,” “… thinkers of the Enlightenment were dismissive of or even hostile toward individuals and groups whom they saw as “different” or “other,” which included everyone other than white European bourgeois male. Behind the Enlightenment’s seemingly neutral, egalitarian, and progressive façade, its detractors allege, lay a tendency toward and justification for the exclusion, marginalization, and exploitation of these “others” – hence the frequent association of the Enlightenment with practices such as slavery and colonialism” (18).  Rasmussen’s statement brings two things to light; one, the ways in which Enlightenment thought created an elite group of individuals, that is, European men to be exact; two, the hypocrisy behind the movement’s rhetoric of advanced reasoning and the belief of it being for societal improvement. Instead, there is a hierarchical solidification of European/Anglo power masked behind protestant work ethic. Both points can be read when examining Crusoe’s capitalistic actions on the island, and his desire to be ruler on the island.     

Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe illustrates a modern capitalistic model of working hard so that you may become master over your business affairs, and become successful enough to relinquish your stocks to others so that they may work for you, instead of vice versa. This capitalistic and enlightenment work ethic can be seen early in his inhabitation of the island. Crusoe never wastes anything that is deemed useful from the moment he steps foot on the island. Crusoe gathered a lot of inventory, as we read,  

…I brought away several Things very useful to me; as first, in the Carpenter’s Stores I found two or three bags full of Nails and Spikes, a great Skrew-Jack, a Dozen or two of Hatchets, and above all, that most useful Thing call’d a Grindstone; all these I secur’d together, with several Things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three Iron Crows, and two Barrels of Musquet Bullets, seven Musquets, and another fowling piece, with some small Quantity of Powder more; a large Bag full of small Shot, and a great Roll of Sheet Lead (41).

In this passage, we read how masterfully he began to make an inventory out of all his items, in true capitalistic fashion. Like an entrepreneur, he realizes what’s important to his economy. Crusoe says, “I smi’d to my self at the Sight of this Money. O Drug! said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no not the taking off of the ground; one of those Knives is worth all this Heap” (43). While itemizing his goods and recognizing what’s of true value in his economy he is enlightened, as well. Crusoe says, “… every Man may be in time Master of every mechanic Art. I had never handled a Tool in my Life, and yet in time by Labour, Application, and Contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had Tools” (51). Hence, not only do we witness his awakening as capitalist but also as Master technician. Crusoe needs to become a craftsman to satisfy his hunger.

Unlike the savages, who ate the flesh of man, Crusoe seems to be consuming the natural resources and those around him in a different way, but just as savage. Flynn writes, “He proves himself to be the most professionally savage inhabitant of his island as he feeds needs that grow increasingly complicated” (424). Crusoe needs seem to be illustrated best when looking at his relationship with Friday, because it’s not just a need of sustenance but a need to dominate and subjugate those around him.

            As Crusoe continues his success on the island, he begins to see himself in another light, that of King or Conqueror. Crusoe says, “I was Lord of the whole Manor; or if I pleas’d, I might call my self King, or Emperor over the whole country which I had possession of” (94). But one is not a king without servants. For this reason, his relationship with Friday cannot be seen as that of two comrades but as ruler and subject. In fact, Friday becomes the first subject of his economy. Interestingly, before Crusoe rescues Friday, he is thinking about adding slaves to his economy. Crusoe says, “… I fancied my self able to manage One, nay, Two or Three Savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely Slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them” (145). Crusoe is always thinking about making use of everything around him, even other human beings. Not only does Crusoe rescue Friday to subject him, but believes he’s rescuing of the savage deems it right for him to subject him. After rescuing Friday, Crusoe says, “… he came running to me, laying himself down again upon the Ground, with all the possible Signs of an humble thankful Disposition, making a many antick Gestures to show it” and “[Friday] made all the Signs to me of Subjection, Servitude, and Submission imaginable, to let me know, how he would serve me as long as he liv’d” (149). The next thing we read is that Crusoe names him Friday and teaches him to say “Master.” Throughout the novel, we read how Crusoe succeeds in mastering and subjecting everything around him, from the land to the people. For this reason, Flynn’s essay on Robinson Crusoe and Rasmussen’s anti-Enlightenment critique seem to come into conversation when reading Robinson Crusoe through both lenses.   

   "An example of Crusoe's dominance over Friday""Depiction of 'Others'"An example of Crusoe collecting his economy"

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